Phosphorous pollution is a major threat to water streams and the aquatic environment, its presence causes many water quality problems including: loss of aquatic species, loss of livestock, possible lethal effect of algal toxins on drinking water, increased purification costs and decreased recreational and conservation value of an impoundment.
Controlling the discharge from municipal and industrial WWTW is a key factor in preventing eutrophication of surface waters. Generally P removal is largely maintained by chemical precipitation which is expensive and causes up to 40% increase in sludge volume. An alternative is biological treatment however, both methods are outdated and would still need further treatment such as pH correction, thus increasing chemical consumption.
There is a requirement to implement cost-effective measures for a safer and more sustainable solution to P removal and its entry into the water course.